29 октября 2016

Blend Modes in Photoshop

Периодически при работе с Фотошопом мне приходится сталкиваться с использованием различных режимов Blend Mode. Непонятная такая штучка. Adobe имеет справочную страничку по ним, но, во-первых, режимы перечислены в порядке, отличном от имеющегося в моей версии программы CS6. А во-вторых, и само объяснение не очень-то понятно: описания скомканы в одном месте, а иллюстрации в другом. Не собираюсь копаться в теме глубоко, но общее представление получить хотелось бы. Так я решила переработать данную справочную страничку под себя.

Сами описания режимов скопированы с вышепреведённого источника, только их порядок изменён. Пример-иллюстрацию сделала сама. Исходные изображения, которые перекрываются:
(накладываемое)

  (нижнее)
(Тёмно-серый заполняющий фон считать прозрачным, из взаимодействия он выведен. Разделительные полоски на верхней схеме являются внешне наложенным эффектом. Рисунки взяты с сайта бесплатных фотографий unsplash.com.)

Заметки:
- Режим Dissolve при Opacity = 100% ведёт себя точно также, как Normal.
- Режимы Hard Light, Vivid Light, Linear Light, Pin Light отличаются друг от друга лишь небольшими нюансами. На моей упрощённой иллюстрации с чистыми цветами разницу между режимами можно заметить лишь на границе фигур.




   === I. NORMAL ===
No special math. (Dissolve dithers edges.)


1.1. Normal
Edits or paints each pixel to make it the result color.



1.2. Dissolve
Edits or paints each pixel to make it the result color. However, the result color is a random replacement of the pixels with the base color or the blend color, depending on the opacity at any pixel location.

(Opacity of top layer is set to 75%)



    === II. DARKEN (SHADOW) ===
Active layer casts shadow on those below.

2.1. Darken

Looks at the color information in each channel and selects the base or blend color—whichever is darker—as the result color. Pixels lighter than the blend color are replaced, and pixels darker than the blend color do not change. 
 


2.2. Multiply
Looks at the color information in each channel and multiplies the base color by the blend color. The result color is always a darker color. Multiplying any color with black produces black. Multiplying any color with white leaves the color unchanged. When you’re painting with a color other than black or white, successive strokes with a painting tool produce progressively darker colors. The effect is similar to drawing on the image with multiple marking pens.



2.3. Color Burn
Looks at the color information in each channel and darkens the base color to reflect the blend color by increasing the contrast between the two. Blending with white produces no change.



2.4. Linear Burn
Looks at the color information in each channel and darkens the base color to reflect the blend color by decreasing the brightness. Blending with white produces no change.



2.5. Darken Color
Compares the total of all channel values for the blend and base color and displays the lower value color. Darker Color does not produce a third color, which can result from the Darken blend, because it chooses the lowest channel values from both the base and the blend color to create the result color.






   === III. LIGHTEN (GLOW) ===
Shines light on the layers below. Each has an opposing mode in the darken group.


3.1. Lighten
Looks at the color information in each channel and selects the base or blend color—whichever is lighter—as the result color. Pixels darker than the blend color are replaced, and pixels lighter than the blend color do not change.



3.2. Screen
Looks at each channel’s color information and multiplies the inverse of the blend and base colors. The result color is always a lighter color. Screening with black leaves the color unchanged. Screening with white produces white. The effect is similar to projecting multiple photographic slides on top of each other.



3.3. Color Dodge

Looks at the color information in each channel and brightens the base color to reflect the blend color by decreasing contrast between the two. Blending with black produces no change.

3.4. Linear Dodge (Add)
Looks at the color information in each channel and brightens the base color to reflect the blend color by increasing the brightness. Blending with black produces no change.



3.5. Lighter Color

Compares the total of all channel values for the blend and base color and displays the higher value color. Lighter Color does not produce a third color, which can result from the Lighten blend, because it chooses the highest channel values from both the base and blend color to create the result color. 
 






   === IV. CONTRACT ===
Burns in shadows and lifts highlights, which heightens the contrast of the image.


4.1. Overlay
Multiplies or screens the colors, depending on the base color. Patterns or colors overlay the existing pixels while preserving the highlights and shadows of the base color. The base color is not replaced, but mixed with the blend color to reflect the lightness or darkness of the original color.




4.2. Soft Light
Darkens or lightens the colors, depending on the blend color. The effect is similar to shining a diffused spotlight on the image. If the blend color (light source) is lighter than 50% gray, the image is lightened as if it were dodged. If the blend color is darker than 50% gray, the image is darkened as if it were burned in. Painting with pure black or white produces a distinctly darker or lighter area, but does not result in pure black or white.



4.3. Hard Light
Multiplies or screens the colors, depending on the blend color. The effect is similar to shining a harsh spotlight on the image. If the blend color (light source) is lighter than 50% gray, the image is lightened, as if it were screened. This is useful for adding highlights to an image. If the blend color is darker than 50% gray, the image is darkened, as if it were multiplied. This is useful for adding shadows to an image. Painting with pure black or white results in pure black or white.



4.4. Vivid Light
Burns or dodges the colors by increasing or decreasing the contrast, depending on the blend color. If the blend color (light source) is lighter than 50% gray, the image is lightened by decreasing the contrast. If the blend color is darker than 50% gray, the image is darkened by increasing the contrast.



4.5. Linear Light
Burns or dodges the colors by decreasing or increasing the brightness, depending on the blend color. If the blend color (light source) is lighter than 50% gray, the image is lightened by increasing the brightness. If the blend color is darker than 50% gray, the image is darkened by decreasing the brightness.



4.6. Pin Light
Replaces the colors, depending on the blend color. If the blend color (light source) is lighter than 50% gray, pixels darker than the blend color are replaced, and pixels lighter than the blend color do not change. If the blend color is darker than 50% gray, pixels lighter than the blend color are replaced, and pixels darker than the blend color do not change. This is useful for adding special effects to an image.



4.7. Hard Mix
Adds the red, green and blue channel values of the blend color to the RGB values of the base color. If the resulting sum for a channel is 255 or greater, it receives a value of 255; if less than 255, a value of 0. Therefore, all blended pixels have red, green, and blue channel values of either 0 or 255. This changes all pixels to primary additive colors (red, green, or blue), white, or black.


[Note: For CMYK images, Hard Mix changes all pixels to the primary subtractive colors (cyan, yellow, or magenta), white, or black. The maximum color value is 100.]




   === V. INVERSION/CANCELLATION ===
First two use active layer to invert those below. Similar colors become black or gray. Next two subtract or divide active from background.


5.1. Difference
Looks at the color information in each channel and subtracts either the blend color from the base color or the base color from the blend color, depending on which has the greater brightness value. Blending with white inverts the base color values; blending with black produces no change.



5.2. Exclusion
Creates an effect similar to but lower in contrast than the Difference mode. Blending with white inverts the base color values. Blending with black produces no change.



5.3. Subtract
Looks at the color information in each channel and subtracts the blend color from the base color. In 8- and 16-bit images, any resulting negative values are clipped to zero.



5.4. Divide
Looks at the color information in each channel and divides the blend color from the base color.






    === VI. COMPONENT ===
A pixel contains HSL information. (COLOR = H + S) These modes mix the ingredients independently.


6.1. Hue
Creates a result color with the luminance and saturation of the base color and the hue of the blend color.



6.2. Saturation
Creates a result color with the luminance and hue of the base color and the saturation of the blend color. Painting with this mode in an area with no (0) saturation (gray) causes no change.


6.3. Color
Creates a result color with the luminance of the base color and the hue and saturation of the blend color. This preserves the gray levels in the image and is useful for coloring monochrome images and for tinting color images.



6.4. Luminosity
Creates a result color with the hue and saturation of the base color and the luminance of the blend color. This mode creates the inverse effect of Color mode.







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